NEW NATIONAL GALLERY AND LUDWIG MUSEUM . TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION
AUTHOR´S VISION AND ARCHITECTURAL CONCEPT
A museum building should convey the image of an atemporal container that preserves the works of art safely for future generations. In the same way, it should be an open institution , that is to say it is open to all the people from different backgrounds and social classes. In the same way, museums act as leading agents in a nation´s move towards social and ethnic inclusion.
On the other hand, it should convey the fact of being impressed by its scale in such a way that nobody feels above or below the other. For this reason, all the visitors must access to the planned building through an overwhelming entrance hall that makes all people feeling equal.
Once this requirements have been satisfied, the container building must take second place in order to give the protagonism to the works of art as well as the functional and technical aspects.
In line with this approach, the planned building has a symbolic nature in the entrance area while the rest of the program is placed in two ortogonal wings which allow to satisfy the requirements of both institutions in a rational and effective way.
The entrance is located where the two wings meet, at the vertical core of the building in order to rationalize the internal movement.
The courtyard generated by these wings provides a friendly environment where people can have a rest and enjoy the open-air spaces without leaving the building when the weather´s nice.
The building is composed of three basements. The lower level is principally used to locate
the building service rooms. The other basements house the permanent exhibition and have interior courtyards and light shafts which will provide indirect natural light without negatively affecting the lighting of the works of art.
The ground floor contains the free access rooms such us café, shops and those elements that provide the museum the most important source of income. You can choose at this level the institution you want to visit. It is also possible to reach the courtyard via this floor.
The first floor houses the museum learning´s rooms of both institutions. The height of this floor will allow to generate a mezzanine floor to contain part of the programm. The entire second floor house the temporary exhibition which it enjoys an indirect natural lighting through a skylight in the roof.
The rest of the programme is developed in the vertical volume of the tower, as significant element of this building with direct access from the main lobby.
The offices, service and artifact handling rooms have their own entrances and routes in order to facilitate their operational independence.
Both institutions have their own private access but they share some stairs to facilitate the evacuation in case of fire or other emergency.
The building is placed in one of the historical axis of the City Park. To reflect this fact, the building planned has an architectural landmark that emerge above the vegetacion in the direction of the axis. This mark is placed in the confluence of Hermina Street, Városligeti körut and Zichy Mihály út and houses the main entrance and the most representative rooms of the building. This is the case of the VIP lounges and the event halls and lecture rooms of both institution. On the very top of the building is located Gaia wich is reached from the reception area with its own elevator. This lab enjoys a panoramic view of the City Park.
The setting back of the facades at the entrance and the wings of the building establish a harmonic and respectful dialog with nearby buildings as a result of its lesser scale.
The view from Hermina Street is more urban in character and a covered square is generated there by the great cantilevers present in the access. Close to this square there is a place for the getting on and off for groups arriving by bus.
The rest of the building has a lower height and it is shaped as a Moebius strip which houses a portion of the park.
The connection by car between the site and Hermina Street is arranged via de currently paved Zichy Mihály Street. For this reason, the parking places of the employees and the in-delivery spaces are located in this area.
The parking places for the visitors and the garage for employees will share the same access in order to reduce the environmental impact of the vehicle traffic on the surface, but they will be located separately. Only the parking places of the employees and the in-deleivery spaces will be installed under the planned building.
OPERATION AND TECHNOLOGY
The visitors will be able to enjoy the most modern systems and interactive displays such as interactive wall and floor projections, interactive pen and touch displays will allow the visitors to experience creativity by themselves.
The building will have LED lighting system to iluminate the rooms and LED projectors for the works of art. The elevators will be panoramic with broad visual outside the interior courtyard of the building.
Event rooms will have retractable seats in order to provide multipurpose spaces such us conference rooms, conference centres or large multiuses spaces.
Most of the offices are open spaces that have no partitions, just the outer walls. In order to provide the most flexible organization of the space, false ceilings and raised floors are installed to conduct the installations.
A especial attencion will be pay to people with disabilities by removing the physical barriers and providing touch objects and tactile marks on the walls, floors and handrails.
Accessibility is not only physical adaptations to building, it must be able to ensure the enjoyment of the work of arts trought the rest of the senses and today it is possible to achieve this goal thanks to the new technologies.
The low cost of the planned building as a result of the rational design will allow to implement all this kind of technology.
The great cantilevers of the facades will be resolved with post-tensioned slabs and concrete walls. The lack of windows in these walls will allow to get these great cantilevers easily. This fact will generate a great impact on the visitors when they enter the main entrance.
The structure of the rest of the building is made up of post-tensioned slabs saving lights of 14 meters which rest upon reinforced concrete walls.
One of the features that has been most carefully studied in the design of the building has been the location of the trees in order to preserve the most of them, especially the bigest ones. All the removed trees will be replaced close to the building.
The building will have a landscaped roof with the objective of strengthening the green character of the building as a sign of respect to the park in which is placed.
This green roof will have a cistern for catching and storing rainwater. Excess water can be used to irrigate the courtyard thanks to a reservoir placed in the groung level.
The roof also houses South facing solar thermal and photovoltaics panels to generate part of the energy and hot water that the building will consume.
The existence of streams of thermal waters flowing underneath the park will provide geothermic energy in a simple way.
Both solar thermal panels and geothermic energy will allow the building to be heated through a floor heating system. This is an optimal solution for heating high-ceiling environments because of radiative effect.
The thickness of the wall and the deciduous trees will provide shade to the windows in summer, limiting the greenhouse efect in the interior.
The great entrance hall has a wide light-shaft that allows to be opened in summer to dissipate heat. This hall also has a lock next to the entrance to help keep heat from escaping.
In the same way, strategically installed skylights iluminate the exhibition areas with natural light in an indirect way. These areas will have the insulation for exterior to benefit from thermal inertia of the concrete walls. This is an interesting fact in order to maintain a constant temperature inside and preserve the works of arts.
On the other hand, in the rest of the rooms the insulation will be on the inside in order to ensure a faster warming.
The exterior covering of the facade has been carried out with recicled polymer concrete panels which are set away from the wall to allow the warm air to escape via openings existing at the upper level.